Assembly and executive organs
The relationship between legislative and executive organs can be classified as a parliamentary cabinet system (Note 1) or a headman (presidency) system (Note 2). While the central Japanese government has adopted a parliamentary cabinet system, not only Tokyo but all other local municipalities in Japan have adopted a headman system.
The authorities and roles of the assembly and executive organs are clearly defined, and the following measures are given to both of them in order to maintain a restrained and coordinated relationship between them for ensuring a fair administration:
- The assembly is authorized to make amendments to the bill submitted by the governor.
- In the event the governor disagrees with the decision of the assembly, the governor is entitled to submit the proposals for re-examination, giving reasons therefor.
- In the event a decision of the assembly or the result of an election is deemed to exceed the authority granted to the assembly or to violate national laws and regulations, the governor is required to request a re-deliberation, providing reasons therefor.
- In the event the assembly votes on the elimination or reduction of mandatory expenditures and refuses to alter its conclusions even if the governor requests it to discuss the issue again, the governor is authorized to implement the budget as originally proposed
- In the event the assembly votes on the elimination or reduction of expenditure for disaster recovery or prevention of infectious diseases and refuses to alter its conclusions even if the governor requests it to discuss issue again, the governor is authorized to deem this a non-confidence resolution against the governor.
- The assembly is entitled to adopt a non-confidence resolution against the governor.
In the event the assembly session cannot be convened or inaugurated, it is clear that there is no time to convene due to urgent necessity, or unable to resolve a matter that should be resolved, the governor is authorized to resolve it on behalf of the assembly (arbitrary decision).
In this case, the governor must report this decision to the assembly to receive the approval in the following session.
Note 1 : Parliamentary cabinet system: The executive organ is nominated by a representative assembly of citizens, with the confidence of the assembly constituting the requisite of the appointment and incumbency of the parliament. In this political system, the executive organ is responsible to the assembly.
Note 2 : Headman (presidency) system: Both the legislative and the executive organs are nominated by direct election of the citizens. In this political system, both organs are responsible to the citizens for their respective responsibilities and authorities.